Arthropods

Arthropods

Phylum:   Arthropoda  (von Siebold, 1848) 

Greek meaning:  Arthron “Joint” and Pous “foot” or "leg", together means jointed legs

 

General

  • Over 1,000,000,134,000 species identified, found world-wide
  • Includes Lobsters, crabs, hermit crabs, crayfish, shrimps and barnacles and fit under Superclass, Crustaceans
  • Non aquatic species include insects
  • Thought to have originated from Annelids
  • Feed on everything

  

Defining Characteristics

  • Takes its name from its distinctive jointed appendages, may be modified in a number of ways to form antennae, mouthparts and reproductive organs
  • Bilateral symmetry (mostly), there are two main body types in the aquatic realm: shrimp like and crab like
  • Body possess an external skeleton (mostly), Stiff cuticle, usually a hard outer. Body covering made of chitin and proteins, form an exoskeleton which may or may not be stiffened further with calcium carbonate, like jointed armour.
  • Body is divided into 2 or 3 sections, Segmented bodies with various patterns of segmented fusion (tagmosis) to form integrated units (heads and abdomen)
  • Body possesses 3 – 400+ pairs of jointed legs
  • Most possess a straight gut with an anus, body cavity has a true coelom
  • Nervous system includes brain and ganglia
  • Possesses a respiratory system in the form of trachea and spiracles (mostly)
  • Possesses a open or lacunar circulatory system with a simple heart, one or more arteries, and no veins (mostly)

 

Reproduction / Life Cycle

  • Can take up to 12 stages to metamorphose into adult
  • Normally sexual, involving copulation and gonochoristic, but can be parthenogenetic
 

Divided into:

 Subphylum:  Chelicerata   – spiders, scorpions, horseshoe crabs, eurypterids(extinct), sea spiders

 Subphylum:   Crustacea   – Shrimp, crabs, barnacles, copepods, fish lice

 Subphylum:   Hexapoda   – Insects

 Subphylum:   Myriapoda   – centipedes, millipedes

 Subphylum:  Trilobitomorpha   – trilobites (Extinct)

 

SUBPHYLUM: CHELICERATA

CLASS: Pycnogonida (Sea Spiders)

 

Scientific Name:   Pallenella ambigua   (Stock,1956)

Common Name:   Sea Spider

Meridionale ambigua

 Photo by Paul Sorensen. Victoria, Port Phillip Bay Devils Dropoff, February 2013.

 

Scientific Name:   Nymphon sp.  (Stock,1956)

Common Name:   Sea Spider

Nymphon sp.

Photo by Paul Sorensen. Victoria, Blairgowrie Pier, November 2021.

 

SUBPHYLUM: CRUSTACEA

ORDER: Decapoda (Ten-footed)

 

Scientific Name: Leptomithrax gaimardii   (Milne Edwards,1834)

Common Name: Giant Spider Crab

Leptomithrax gaimardii

Photo by Paul Sorensen. Victoria, Blairgowrie Pier, August 2013.

Leptomithrax gaimardii

Photo by Paul Sorensen. Victoria, Rye Pier, March, 2013.

 

Scientific Name:   Schizophrys rufescens  Griffin & Tranter, 1986

Common Name:  Spider Crab

 Schizophrys rufescens

Photo by Paul Sorensen. South Australia, Rapid Bay, March 2022.

 

Scientific Name: Nectocarcinus tuberculosus   (Milne Edwards, 1860)

Common Name: Velvet Crab

Nectocarcinus tuberculosus

Photo by Paul Sorensen. Victoria, Port Phillip Bay.

 

Scientific Name:  Guinusia chabrus   (Linnaeus, 1758)

Common Name:  Red Rock Crab 

Guinusia chabrus

Photo by Paul Sorensen. Victoria, Port Phillip Bay.

 

Scientific Name:   Pinnotheres kickmani  (Guiler, 1950)

Common Name:   Hickman’s Pea Crab

Pinnotheres kickmani

 Photo by Paul Sorensen, Victoria, Blairgowrie Pier, October 2021.

 

Scientific Name: Achaeus japonicus    (De Haan, 1839)

Common Name: Orangutan crab

Achaeus japonicus

Photo by Paul Sorensen. Philippines, Puerto Galera, September 2019.

 

Scientific Name:  Ebalia intermedia      (Miers, 1886)

Common Name:  Smooth Nut Crab

Ebalia intermedia

Photo by Paul Sorensen. Victoria, Frankston Pier, June 2021.

 

Scientific Name:  Alpheus richardsoni   (Yaldwyn, 1971)

Common Name:   Snapping Shrimp

Alpheus richardsoni

 Photo by Paul Sorensen. Victoria

 

Scientific Name:  Athanopsis australis  DM Banner & AH Banner, 1982

Common Name:   Southern hooded shrimp 

Athanopsis australis

Photo by Paul Sorensen. Victoria, Blairgoriw Pier, March 2022.

 

Philocheras victoriensis   (Fulton&Grant, 1902)

Victorian Sand Shrimp

Philocheras victoriensis

Philocheras victoriensis

 

Unnamed

Shrimp

 Arthropod

 

Unnamed

Shrimp

Arthropod

 

Palaemon intermidius    (Stimpson, 1860)

Transparent Shrimp

Palaemon intermidus

Palaemon intermidus

 

Palaemon serenus    (Heller, 1862)

Red Claw / Rock Pool Shrimp

Palaemon serenus

Palaemon serenus

 

 

Hadrosquilla perpasta    (Hale, 1824)

Mantis Shrimp

Hadrosquilla perpasta

Hadrosquilla perpasta

 

Unnamed

Golden Shrimp

Golden Shrimp

 

Unnamed Shrimp

Black Shrimp

Black Shrimp

 

Unnamed Shrimp

Shrimp

Mysid Shrimp

 

Unnamed Shrimp

Shrimp

Shrimp

 

 Unknown Species

Shrimp

Unknown Species

 

 

Cyclograpsus granulosus    (Milne Edwareds, 1853)

Purple-mottled shore crab

Cyclograpsus granulosus

Cyclograpsus granulosus

 

Micthyris platycheles     (Milne Edwards, 1852)

Soldier Crab

Micthyris platycheles

 

Strigopagurus strigimanus    (White, 1847)

Stridulating Hermit Crab

Strigopagurus strigimanus

 

Paguristes frontalis    (Milne Edwards, 1836)

 Common Hermit Crab

Paguristes frontalis

 

Galathea austliensis    (Stimpson, 1858)

Straited Craylet, Straited Squat Lobster

Galathea australiensis

Galathea australiensis

 

Heteropilumnus fimbriatus    (H.Milne Edwards, 1834)

Bearded Crab

Heteropilumnus fimbriatus

 

Microhalimus sp.

Decorator Crab

Microhalimus sp

 

Unknown Name

Crab

Crab

 

Portunoidea sp.

Crab

Portunoidea sp

 

Unknown Crab - Under flourescetn light

Crab

Crab

 

 

Order: Isopoda

 

Crabyzos longicaudatus    (Bate,1863) 

Sea Centipede

 Crabyzos longicaudatus

 

Actaecia species

Isopod

Actaecia species

 

Unknown species

Isopod

Isopod

 


Isopod Species

Isopod

Isopod Species

 

Neosphaeroma species

Isopod

 Neosphaeroma sp.

 

Neosphaeroma species

Isopod 

Neosphaeroma sp.

 

Zuzara semipunctata    (Leach, 1818)

Isopod

Zuzara semipunctata

 

 Arthropods outside of Victoria

 

 

References:

WoRMS (2020). Arthropoda. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=1065 on 2020-04-26