Dorid Nudibranchs

Dorid Nudibranchs

  • Dorids (clades Anthobranchia, Doridacea, Doridoidea)
  • recognised by branchial (gill) plume, formed as a cluster on the posterioe of the body
  • They breathe with the branchial plume, which projects from their anus
  • Have a thick mantle that extends over the foot.
  • Some mantles are covered with tubercles, varying in size, numbers and shapes
  • Fringes on the mantle do not contain any intestines
  • Toxins are stored in the mantle as defense
  • Toxins are extracated from food sources

 

Kingdom          Animalia

Phylum            Mollusca

Class                 Gastropoda 

Subclass           Heterobranchia

Infraclass         Euthyneura

Subterclass     Ringipleura

Superorder     Nudipleura

Order               Nudibranchia

Suborder        Doridina

Infraorder     Doridoidei

A M G H E R N N D D Superfamily:  Chromodoridoidea   Bergh, 1891
A M G H E R N N D D C Family:  Actinocyclidae   O'Donoghue, 1929
A M G H E R N N D D C Family:   Cadlinellidae  Odhner, 1934
A M G H E R N N D D C Family:   Cadlinidae   Bergh, 1891
 
A M G H E R N N D D C Family:   Chromodorididae   Bergh, 1891
A M G H E R N N D D C C Subfamily:   Chromodoridinae   Bergh, 1891 
A M G H E R N N D D C C C Genus: Chromodoris   (Alder&Hancock, 1855)

 

General

  • Currently 101 classified species
  • A molecular phylogeny of the family Chromodorididae resulted in this genus being restricted to smaller number of species than formerly,
  • Most have longitudinal black lines on the mantle.
  • Many former members of Chromodoris were transferred to Goniobranchus
 

Distribution

  • Commonly found in tropical and subtropical waters

 

Habitat

  • Usually living as members of reef communities

 

Body

  • Exhibit one of the two major body types found within Nudibranchia
  • Breathe oxygen principally through their gills, usually positioned in a featherlike structure located around the anus at their posterior, called the branchial plume.
  • A few major bodily features separate chromodorids from other sea slugs.
  • These species characteristically have black stripes along their bodies and linear spawning.
  • Commonly exhibit chemical defenses to protect themselves from predators
  • Dorids have a thick mantle that exists over their foot, and in some species, the mantle can have tubercles (nodules along the surface of an organism that are made of keratin)[3] of different concentrations, shapes, and sizes, providing some rigidity and protection
  • Use of bioactive compounds like alkaloids, diterpenes, and sesquiterpenes from the sponges they feed on
  • Transport and store toxic compounds in specialized storage glands located in strategic locations throughout the mantle, called mantle dermal formations (MDFs).
  • MDFs can harbor extremely high concentrations of distasteful and potent compounds in comparison to the rest of their body
  •  

Reproduction

  • Are simultaneous hermaphrodites, each individual possesses both male and female reproductive structures
  • During mating, in an act called “penis fencing”
  • Two individuals compete for the position of male, by darting their penises at one another
  • The victor is the one who penetrates the body wall of the other and impregnating them,
  • Forcing the other to act as the female.
  • The female lays eggs onto a substrate,
  • Eggs hatch planktonic vestigial veliger larva, who further evolve into adults
 

Feeding

  • Prey primarily on sponges.

 

 

References:

 Wikipedia, 2022. Chromodoris. Accessed at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chromodoris dated 02.04.2022

 

 

Chromodoris alternata

Chromodoris alternata

 

Chromodoris tinctorial   (Ruppell & Leuckart, 1828)

Meshed chromodoris

Chromodoris tinctorial

 

 

Non Victorian Nudibranchs

Chromodoris lochi    (Rudman, 1982)

Loch's Chomodoris  

Chromodoris lochi

 

 

Chromodoris willani   

Willan's Chormodoris

Chromodoris willani

 

 
 
Family:   Hexabranchidae   Bergh, 1891
Family:   Showajidaiidae   Korshunova, Fletcher, Picton, Lundin, Kashio, N.   Sanamyan, K. Sanamyan, Padula, Schrödl &   Martynov,   2020
 

 

Ceratosoma brevicaudatum  (Abraham, 1876)

Short-tailed Nudibranch

Ceratosoma brevicaudatum

 

 

Goniobranchus epicurius

Goniobranchus epicurius

Goniobranchus epicurius

Discodoris Paroa

Discodoris paroa

 

Family: Polyceridae

Tambja dracomus    (Willan & Y.-W. Chang, 2017)

Tambja dracomus

 

Tambja verconis     (Basedow & Hedley, 1905)

Tambja verconis

Gymodoris alba

Gymnodoris alba

 

 

Polycera hedgpathi    (Er. Marcus, 1964)

Polycera hedgpethi

 

 

 

Kaloplocamus ramosus (Cantraine,1835)

Kaloplocamus ramosus

Photo by Paul Sorensen

Kaloplocamus ramosus

Photo by Paul Sorensen